Emater-RS indicates significant losses in soybean crops in Rio Grande do Sul

Increasing losses arise from natural threshing, sprouted and damaged grains, and trail failures, all exacerbated by excess moisture; corn harvest advanced

06.06.2024 | 17:36 (UTC -3)
Cultivar Magazine, based on information from Emater-RS

The recent dry and sunny periods provided some progress in the harvest of soybean crops in Rio Grande do Sul, improving the physical and sanitary conditions of the grains. However, the harvest was impacted by intense rainfall after April 29, which resulted in significant losses. The information is from Emater-RS.

In regions such as the Northwest, Alto Uruguay, Northeast and part of the Plateau, the harvest was completed successfully. In the South and Campanha regions, there are still many crops left to be harvested, which resulted in high production and economic losses. Overall, it is estimated that 96% of soybean areas in the state have been harvested.

Crops faced increasing losses due to natural threshing, sprouted and damaged grains, and trail failures, all exacerbated by excess moisture. Before the intense rains, productivity was considered satisfactory, with peaks of 5.400 kg/ha and an average of over 3.300 kg/ha. However, the impossibility of immediately harvesting mature crops and the continued maturation of the remaining crops negatively altered the production and productivity outlook, affecting around 24% of the areas.

Emater-RS estimated in November 2023 a production of 22.246.630 tons in an area of ​​6.681.716 hectares, with productivity of 3.329 kg/ha. The rains affected 1.490.505 hectares, resulting in a loss of 2.714.151 tons. Thus, the new state production estimate is 19.532.479 tons, with productivity reduced to 2.923 kg/ha.

After removing soybeans, producers began repairing soil erosion and adding acidity and nutrient correctors to restore fertility. In the administrative region of Bagé, the harvest advanced, but producers faced difficulties due to soil moisture and damaged grains. In cities such as Rosário do Sul, Dom Pedrito, Candiota and Hulha Negra, the harvest varied between 70% and 95%.

In other regions, the harvest was equally challenging. In São Borja and Maçambará, on the Western Border, productivity was variable and the quality of the grains declined. In Caxias do Sul, 10% of crops were abandoned. In Erechim and Frederico Westphalen, the harvest ended with satisfactory productivity. In Passo Fundo, 3% of the areas were not harvested, but productivity was excellent, at 4.000 kg/ha.

In the Pelotas region, dry weather allowed some progress, but the proportion of commercially viable grains was less than 15%. In Santa Maria, productivity expectations fell from 3.269 kg/ha to around 2.500 kg/ha after the floods. In Santa Rosa, the harvest was completed, but with a 4,4% reduction in final productivity. In Soledade, 75% of the areas were harvested before the floods, with normal productivity; the remaining areas, however, suffered deterioration.

The average price of soybeans in Rio Grande do Sul fell 0,81% in the last week, going from R$123,09 to R$122,09 per 60-kilo bag, according to a weekly price survey by Emater-RS.

Corn situation

Recent improvements in weather conditions have allowed significant progress in the corn harvest in Rio Grande do Sul. Small producers, who depend on manual operations, took advantage of the period of dry weather, while areas with mechanized harvesting advanced as the grains reached ideal levels of humidity. However, despite harvest progress, corn quality and productivity were severely impacted by previous adverse weather conditions.

In the northern half of the state, the harvest is practically complete, reaching 94% of the cultivated area. According to Emater-RS, the initial estimate in November 2023 indicated a planted area of ​​812.795 hectares, with an expected production of 5.202.976 tons and productivity of 6.401 kg/ha. However, the rains and floods that began in May affected 113.700 hectares, resulting in a loss of 354.189 tons. Now, production is projected at 4.848.786 tons, with productivity reduced to 5.966 kg/ha.

Challenges in different regions:

• Bagé: In the Emater-RS administrative region of Bagé, crops intended for self-consumption are still being harvested. The continuous rains caused rot in the ears and grains, especially in areas affected by leafhoppers and in hybrids with matting problems. In Candiota, excess humidity caused grains to germinate on the cobs.

• Caxias do Sul: Dry weather favored the harvest, but the quality of the remaining grains was severely compromised, with a high incidence of germinated, burned and moldy grains. Average productivity fell to 6.590 kg/ha.

• Frederico Westphalen: Harvest concluded with an average productivity of 6.644 kg/ha, a 26% reduction in relation to initial expectations, due to high rainfall, strong winds and diseases.

• Ijuí: with 99% of the area harvested, grain productivity and quality have progressively fallen.

• Pellets: The harvest progressed slowly, with only 44% of crops harvested. Quality losses are significant due to excess moisture, with current productivity of 2.578 kg/ha.

• Santa Maria: The harvest is almost complete, but productivity fell from an initial expectation of 5.734 kg/ha to 3.942 kg/ha, resulting in a loss of around 56 thousand tons.

• Saint pink: with 98% of the area harvested, average productivity was reduced from 8.590 kg/ha to 5.520 kg/ha due to adverse weather conditions.

• Soledade: the harvest reached 73% of the cultivated area. Producers wait for longer periods of firm weather to reduce grain moisture content, essential for mechanical harvesting and storage quality.

The sale of a 60-kilo bag of corn showed a slight reduction of 0,07% compared to the previous week, going from R$57,34 to R$57,30, according to a survey by Emater/RS-Ascar.

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