Drought recorded in June harms the development of winter cereals in Northern Paraná

Earlier crops implemented in April presented poor development conditions, in addition to a higher incidence of aphids and cutworms.

05.07.2024 | 16:36 (UTC -3)
Secretariat of Agriculture
Photo: Disclosure
Photo: Disclosure

Except in the extreme south, June 2024 was an extremely dry month in Paraná. The action of atmospheric blockages with the formation of an extensive mass of dry and hot air over most of the State prevented the advance of frontal systems (cold fronts), culminating in a month with practically no record of precipitation in the North and Northwest of Paraná. The highest monthly rainfall accumulated occurred in Francisco Beltrão, in the Southwest, where it rained 202,4 mm.

Precipitation anomalies were lower than the historical average in all regions of the State. The Southwest and South were the locations that came closest to climatological normal with deficits of 26,4 mm and 42,2 mm, respectively. The Northwest and North regions were most impacted by the drought. On the Coast, RMC, West and Central region the situation was also critical, albeit to a lesser extent. The state average of precipitation was 44,8 mm, while the historical average is 115,5 mm.

The water available in the soil, which represents the water availability for crops, was extremely critical, reaching zero level in a large part of the State. In the southernmost regions and on the coast where rainfall was recorded, available water varied from 20 to 80 mm.

Temperatures were extremely high for the time, especially the maximum temperatures, with values ​​well above the historical average across the State, due to the presence of the strong atmospheric blockage that persisted throughout the month.

Maximum temperatures ranged from 1,5 ºC to 5,5 ºC above the historical average. In Umuarama, for example, in the northwest of the state, the maximum temperature anomaly reached 5,5 ºC. The highest absolute temperature value was 35,2 °C recorded in Antonina on the 23rd. Minimum temperatures varied from 0,1 ºC to 4,2 ºC above the historical average. In São Miguel do Iguaçu, in the west of the State, the average minimum temperature was 17,2 ºC, while the historical average is 13 ºC.

In Londrina, June 2024 was the hottest in the entire history of the municipality, since measurements began in 1976. The average temperature in the second largest city in Paraná was 20,8 ºC. The maximum recorded was 27,9 ºC and the minimum was 14,2 ºC. 

On the state average, the maximum and minimum temperatures were 3,4 ºC and 2,1 ºC above the historical average, respectively.

There was a strong polar mass at the end of the month that caused frost in several regions of Paraná, except in the North, Northwest and Coast. The lowest temperature recorded was -3,5 ºC on 30/06 in the municipality of General Carneiro, located in the extreme south of Paraná. Based on weekly bulletins prepared by technicians from the Department of Rural Economy of Paraná (Deral), the following shows the influence of the weather conditions in the month of June on the main agricultural crops in Paraná.

In a large part of Paraná, the accumulated rainfall in June was not enough to meet the needs of crops in the field. The Northwest and North stand out, where there was no rainfall for 34 days (28/05 to 30/06). In other regions, drought was also problematic, albeit to a lesser extent, with the Southwest being the only exception.

See the behavior of cultures

Wheat – wheat sowing reached 96% at the end of June and had some interruptions throughout the month due to the lack of soil moisture. In the later regions in the extreme south of Paraná, the condition was favorable due to the rains that occurred at the end of the month. On the other hand, the earliest crops implemented in April that faced droughts and higher temperatures, such as in the North of Paraná, presented poor development conditions, such as low growth, yellowed leaves, slow and uneven germination, fewer tillers and a reduction in productive potential. In these regions, there was also a higher incidence of aphids and cutworms and a lower efficiency of fungicides to control leaf spots. For other winter cereals such as oats and barley the situation is similar.

Beans 2st harvest – the second harvest of beans was practically closed and brought forward. Unlike the month of May, the drier weather in June favored the harvest, drying of grains in the field and the quality of the harvested product. The drop in bean productivity was confirmed due to the drought and excessive rain that occurred during the harvest.

Corn 2rd harvest – Due to the dry and hot climate, the 2nd corn harvest was largely favored and also brought forward, reaching 53% at the end of the month. However, the persistent drought in most of the State's producing regions caused a reduction in productivity, especially in the Northwest and North of Paraná. Despite this, the quality of most of the grains harvested was satisfactory. Some areas that presented poor conditions were allocated to silage instead of grains. The South and Southeast regions showed good productivity, favored by rainfall. At the end of June, 90% of the crops were in the maturation phase and 10% in fruiting.

fruit growing – the apple harvest ended with lower yields than last year, due to excessive rainfall during flowering in October and November. The persimmon harvest was also completed, which presented orchards with irregular fruits and accelerated maturation due to droughts and high temperatures. In June, the grape harvest was also carried out, favored by the dry weather. The harvested oranges had below-average productivity due to the droughts that occurred during the harvest.

Vegetable crops – the second potato crop went from 56% harvested in May to 86% harvested in June. Irrigated potatoes had good development, but rainfed potatoes showed low productivity in areas affected by drought, contrasting with good productivity where rainfall was more regular. Many producers have chosen to irrigate onions planted both via seeds and seedlings, to ensure good initial development of the plants.

Other vegetables also required more irrigation due to the prolonged drought. As for tomatoes, the first harvest ended and some producers planted the new harvest, mostly carried out in greenhouses due to the possibility of protecting the plants against possible frost.

Café – the coffee harvest increased from 15% in May to 47% in June, favored by the dry weather, but limited by the availability of labor. The natural drying process of the fruits in the sun also benefited from the absence of rain. The conversion rate of coconut coffee into processed coffee, called income, was low, and this was due to the significant amount of small grains caused by high temperatures and long periods of drought during the harvest.

Manioc – in June the harvest and planting of new cassava areas were carried out, both activities presented difficulties due to low soil moisture.

Sugar cane – the sugarcane harvest and planting of the new crop were favored by the dry weather in June in the producing regions of the North and Northwest of Paraná. Yields were normal despite the drought.

Pastures – in the Northwest, the main beef cattle farming region in Paraná, pastures had a low volume of green mass, making cattle management difficult and requiring supplementation with feed and silage, which increases production costs. This condition also began to be observed in the north of the state.

Forestry – the dry climate led to the cutting of eucalyptus and pine, as well as the harvest of pine nuts, which have shown a better harvest compared to last year.

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